Oral diseases are mostly caused by bacteria; How to prevent them with Photodynamic Therapy?

Oral diseases are mostly caused by bacteria; How to prevent them with Photodynamic Therapy?

Dental plaque is the root cause of many oral health problems. It is a sticky, colourless to light yellow film that forms on your teeth daily. The buildup of plaque leads to the formation of minerals called tartar. Tartar usually builds up above the gum line and eventually irritates the gum, causing inflammation leading to gum diseases. 

More often, Chlorhexidine is the over-the-counter (OTC) antiseptic mouthwash prescribed by dentists to treat bleeding and inflammation caused by gingivitis. However, Chlorhexidine is not suitable for prolonged use as it comes with side effects like taste alteration, teeth staining and tartar formation. It also has an antibacterial effect that affects the whole mouth. This disturbs oral flora in the whole of the mouth. Chlorhexidine can only be used for a maximum of two weeks at a time.

The good news is that scientists have a new method for combating oral pathogens in dental plaque. The new technical mouthwash is based on light activation of oral rinse also known as photodynamic therapy. The technical mouthwash is intended for local treatment of oral pathogens and prevention of oral diseases such as periodontitis and cavity formation. 

Technical mouthwash differentiates from other mouthwashes with its light activation. The antibacterial effect is stronger than with other antimicrobial mouthwashes and is directed towards dental plaque. The plaque specific antibacterial does not affect normal oral microbiome which is a common problem with regular antimicrobial mouthwashes.  

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Dentistry

The use of PDT in dentistry is increasing rapidly in treating oral diseases like bacterial infections, gum diseases and oral mucositis -- an inflammation of oral mucosal tissue which is a painful side effect of cancer treatments. Phototherapy uses an agent (photosensitisers) and light to destroy bacteria in their cellular level. 

PDT and Plaque

There is a lot of evidence of PDT antibacterial approach being highly effective against dental pathogens in dental plaque. Dentists have used PDT for treatment of gum disease and root canal treatment sterilisation. 

Lumoral technical mouthwash is the first device to utilise PDT for management of dental plaque. Using Lumoral prevents oral infection and it is intended particularly for individuals who deal with frequent oral infections or those with oral cavities despite having a good oral hygiene routine. 

Indocyanine Green (ICG)

ICG act as a photosensitizers used in PDTT. It is a green negatively charged colouring agent that produces a photothermal and photodynamic effect. Photothermal means that it releases heat energy when exposed to light and photodynamic means that part of the absorbed energy is released as singlet oxygen.

Photosensitisers are inactivated preparations that need to be exposed to light triggering its antibacterial property. ICG primarily attaches to bacteria and bacteria biofilms; it is activated by exposure to light, accompanied by oxygen, creating a cytotoxic effect on the bacteria.

ICG Photo Thermal Therapy with SRP

Scaling and root planing are widely used in treating periodontal diseases by manually removing the infected tooth's bacterial biofilm. Scaling and root planing creates a compatible surface for repair and reattachment.

SRP is not an effective treatment when the infection reaches the soft tissues. Local administration of antibiotics is used to disinfect pockets and fully eradicate these pathogens. However, frequent use of antibiotics is a primary concern nowadays due to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic-resistant pathogens become immune to the drug leaving it ineffective in future use.

Modern dentistry uses ICG photoactivated method to replace antibiotics together with SRP.  PDT antibacterial effect does not rely on the key to hole-principle like antibiotics and there is no antibiotic resistance formation associated with PDT despite multiple studies trying to generate it. 

Effectivity of PDT

- Proven antibacterial property against most common dental and skin pathogens including Streptococcus Mutans, Staphylococcus Aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans etc.  Streptococcus Mutans are a key player in tooth decay and plaque development, while Staphylococcus Aureus is a  common bacterium causing skin infections and respiratory infections.

- Using ICG and PDT has shown up to 90% of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, which are the common causes of periodontitis.

- Significantly reduced anaerobic bacterial colonies.

- It has shown reduced inflammation and bleeding together with SRP within 6-months of use.

Safe

According to NCBI, using ICG with PDT has shown no side effects such as staining.

Promotes healing

ICGwith PDT increases healing for localised infections. The combination provides a secondary effect that stimulates healing and tissue repair.

Dangers of Plaque

Plaque formation is generally non-concerning as it is readily removed by regular brushing. Oral diseases arise when plaque begins to build up together with a community of bacteria. Some people have pathogen bacteria strains in their oral cavity and have more aggressive plaque or cavity developers despite having good oral hygiene routines. 

Cavities

Dental plaque is the main contributor to the development of cavities. The acid produced by the acid-producing bacteria found in plaque destroys the teeth's surface. CDC reported that around 90% of adults have tooth decay, and 26% of adults with ages ranging from 20 to 64 are left untreated.

Gum disease (Periodontitis)

Dental plaque is the foremost contributing factor causing periodontitis, a severe gum disease brought about by gathering bacteria on your teeth and gums. This starts in the form of gingivitis where you experience bleeding gums when brushing your teeth.

The next stage is when you see little pockets between your teeth and gums where bacteria thrive.

Bleeding and pain come next as your teeth loosen, leading to inflammation.

In the advanced stage of periodontitis, you will experience bad breath, extreme pain while chewing, and a foul taste in your mouth. You will ultimately lose your teeth as the tissue holding your teeth weakens. 

Oral cancer

Areca nut, Tobacco, alcohol and HPV Virus primarily cause oral cancer. A study shows that there is no direct correlation between oral hygiene and oral cancer. However, with in-depth analysis, poor oral health is caused by tobacco, alcohol, and areca nut consumption. Areca nuts cause periodontal diseases, alcohol dependence causes poor oral hygiene, and tobacco use promotes dental caries and periodontal diseases. In conclusion, poor oral hygiene acts as an additive factor in oral cancer.

Why Choose Lumoral?

Most dental diseases are caused by infectious bacteria and can be prevented. Cleaning the teeth and removing bacteria biofilm from teeth surface is most important for prevention of dental diseases as teeth are our body’s only non shedding surfaces where bacteria can build chronic pathogenic biofilm leading to dental diseases.

Lumoral is the first home use method with PDT technology that allows the removal of the microscopic dental plaque and elimination of dental pathogens in teeth surface and gum line without affecting oral microbiome.  Lumoral is suitable for continuous use as part of normal home hygiene routine and is intended especially for those who suffer from cavity formation or gum disease despite having a good personal oral hygiene routine.  

Many dentists are recommending Lumoral for their patients to improve oral home care, as dedication to home care is key for successful treatments. 

For more information, please contact us at info@lumoral.com

Buy Your Lumoral Kit today

Prevent the formation of those hard to remove unsightly tartar by using Lumoral twice a week before brushing. Lumoral is proven safe and effective in killing bacteria, utilising the advanced technology of Dual-light PDT without the fear of antibiotic resistance. Be proactive in fighting oral diseases, take care of your oral health and use Lumoral TODAY!